1. This course provides an overview of the relations between Government and science, taking the UK as a core example but considering similarities and differences among Western developed economies and between these and less developed/rapidly developing economies, by:

    • Introducing and problematizing the notion of public policy and how it is made and implemented (including the role of scientific knowledge and expertise, and scientists) in these processes
    • Outlining the key issues in policy for science and science for policy
    • Identifying and reflecting upon selected emerging issues in science policy (e.g. fraud and misconduct, 'Science 2.0' models of review and communication) and their implications.
    • Exploring the communication of and public engagement in/with science policy.


  2. Reading List 226 items
    This is a list of selected texts upon which the course will draw (there is no one key text). This should be seen as resources rather than prescriptions - we know you can't read everything but have tried to provide a guide to reading and lots of alternatives. The reading list is structured and the skill to navigate a long reading list is one you should already have developed as postgraduate students. (Where we require you read something before a session we will clearly indicate this)
    1. General background reading/pre-reading 3 items
      1. The secret life of science: how it really works and why it matters - Jeremy J. Baumberg 2018

        Book  (Also available in the library catalogue as an e-book.) An interesting book about the processes and practices of modern science written not by sociologists or historians of science but a Professor of Nanotechnology at Cambridge. If you are skeptical that sociologists and historians have anything to tell us about the nature of modern science, then I advise you read this and compare it with the academic research on the practice of modern science - you'll see that there is a lot of common ground. Different chapters of the book deal with different topics and themes that we cover in the course, such as who decides what research gets done, the importance of scientific publishing, scientific careers, etc. See also his website "The Science Monster":

      2. Why we disagree about climate change: understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity - M. Hulme c2009

        Book  Another insightful book about the social practices and contexts of science by a scientist rather than a social scientist or historian, reflective of what Hulme has learned through decades of working on climate science communication and policy issues. Again very consistent with and complementary to sociology and history of science research findings.

      3. The fifth risk: undoing democracy - Michael Lewis 2018

        Book  A recent journalistic investigation into the (lack of) preparation by the incoming Trump administration for 'transition' in the leadership of various departments and agencies of the federal government. In covering the transition debacle Lewis gives a really great account of the importance of often unglamorous expertise in government.

    2. General background reading: What is Public Policy? 19 items
      1. Policy - H. K. Colebatch 2002

        Book Recommended A short, accessible introduction to public policy.

      2. Analyzing public policy - Peter John 2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended A very useful book that reviews the main competing theories offered to explain policy change. This link is to the e-book but there are also hard copies in the library.

      3. Studying public policy: policy cycles and policy subsystems - Michael Howlett, M. Ramesh 2003

        Book Further Compared to the other books listed above this one takes a somewhat more 'technical' policy studies approach: the focus is on agenda-setting, on policy instruments and policy design, and on policy learning and evaluation.

      4. The Policy process: a reader - Michael Hill 1997

        Book Further A good reader (collection of individual scholarly articles) on various different aspects of public policy.

      5. Policy making in the real world

        Document Recommended Report from the (UK-based) Institute for Government that discusses some of the differences between ideal visions of policy-making and the more messy realities and challenges of practical policy-making. It also looks at pressures and potential avenues for reform.

      6. 12 things to know about studying public policy | Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy

        Webpage Recommended Great summary blogpost, with links to lots of other posts on the specific issues, looking at what political science/policy studies tells us about public policy making. From Prof Paul Cairney of Stirling University.

      7. Key policy theories and concepts in 1000 words | Paul Cairney

        Webpage Further The full list of Paul Cairney's helpful short blog posts summarising different theories of the policy process.

      8. Working for policy (e-book) - Hal K. Colebatch, Rob Hoppe, Mirko Noordegraaf 2011

        Book Recommended Another great introduction but more focused on what policy work involves.

      9. How does Government work in the UK? 11 items
        1. I was asked to add in some background texts on government, politics and policy-making in the UK, so I have added a selection of classic and recent textbooks and some other useful background resources.

        2. Politics UK - Bill Jones, Philip Norton 2014 (electronic resource)

          Book Further An introductory text on British government and politics, for those who want to start from first principles. Available as an ebook!

        3. Policy Making in Britain: An Introduction - Peter Dorey 2005 (electronic resource)

          Book Further Introductory textbook that looks at policy-making and implementation in the British context: how is it done, by whom, and how is it (or might it be) changing?

        4. Governance and public policy in the United Kingdom - David Richards, Martin J. Smith 2002

          Book Further Another introduction, covering much of the same ground as the Dorey book above.

        5. Everyday life in British government - R. A. W. Rhodes 2011

          Book Further Recent academic study of life at the top of UK government departments based on quasi-ethnographic methods (i.e. the author followed ministers around).

        6. Ministers Reflect | Interviews on how to be effective in Government

          Webpage Further Bang up-to-date, the Institute for Government brings us this interesting collection of interviews with people who were ministers during the coalition government (2010-15) about their experience. Of particular interest might be those with David Willetts and Vince Cable, who were responsible for science and innovation during most of that government.

        7. Below are some non-academic but interesting books which cover some of the same ground as the sources listed above.

        8. Whitehall - Peter Hennessy 1989

          Book Further Non-academic (though scholarly) introduction to the ways of Whitehall, that is the central government of the United Kingdom by a veteran journalist.

        9. How to be a minister - Gerald Kaufman 1997

          Book Further A well-known non-academic collection of advice to prospective ministers on how Whitehall works and how to get the most out of it.

        10. Who runs this place?: the anatomy of Britain in the 21st century - Anthony Sampson c2004

          Book Further Non-academic account by a veteran journalist of different 'spheres' of influence in Britain, looking at the relative power or otherwise of Parliament, Government, the media, the universities, the banks etc.

        11. Introduction to/timeline of UK science policy 1 item
          1. Trends in UK Science Policy - Michael Keenan, Kieron Flanagan 1998

            Chapter Further Still useful as a very brief history/timeline of 20th Century UK science policy.

    3. Policy for science 54 items
      1. Rationales 20 items
        1. Chapter 3 Vannevar Bush and the Myth of Creation - Daniel Greenberg 2001

          Chapter Recommended Veteran US science journalist Greenberg's clinical dissection of the religious fervour with which much of the US science community mythologises Vannevar Bush and his 1945 report.

        2. Pasteur's quadrant: basic science and technological innovation - Donald Elkinton Stokes 1997

          Book Further Stokes explores the economic rationale for government funding of 'basic' science, offering a new categorisation to replace the (linear?) notion of 'basic' and 'applied'.

        3. What science is really worth - Macilwain, Colin 2010

          Article Recommended

        4. Basic Research as a Political Symbol - Pielke, Roger

          Journal Recommended

        5. Bacon's shadow. - Kealey, Terence Kealey, Terence (correspondence author)

          Journal Further Typically provocative short article from Kealey, the arch-critic of consensus thinking on government spending on science, tracing the modern belief in a 'linear model' in which the State must support pure science in order to supply knowledge for the development of technology back to Francis Bacon.

        6. Some deeper background reading below on linear/market failure rationales and the definitions/conceptualisations that underpin them, and on the more recent 'systems' views of innovation which have supposedly supplanted 'linear model' rationales, including the famous recent popular pamphlet and book by the innovation economist Mariana Mazzucato. Also, some background on the history/genealogy of both perspectives from the historian of innovation policy thinking, Benoit Godin.

        7. What's Special about Basic Research? - Calvert, Jane

          Journal Further

        8. The Entrepreneurial State (2011 Demos pamphlet) - Mariana Mazzucato 11/07/2011

          Document Further

        9. The entrepreneurial state: debunking public vs. private sector myths - Mariana Mazzucato 2013

          Book Further

      2. The politics of science funding 34 items
        1. Ch 4 The Glorious Past - Daniel Greenberg 2001

          Chapter Recommended Greenberg's take on the tendency of the science lobby to hark back to a mythical 'golden age' where public funds were plentiful and autonomy high, always contrasted with present-day underfunding and interference.

        2. Politics of science funding - autonomy, prioritisation, selectivity 8 items
          1. The Republic of science - Michael Polanyi 1962

            Article Essential A classic defence of the need for absolute autonomy of scientists to set their own research agendas with no political or public interference.

          2. Criteria for scientific choice - Alvin M. Weinberg 1963

            Article Essential An early and influential argument that the unplanned growth of public funded science could not continue without priorities being set from outside the scientific community.

          3. The UK Research Excellence Framework (REF)/Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 3 items
            The UK's REF (formerly known as the RAE) has been an instrument of deliberate selectivity in research funding since the mid-1980s and the effects on research cultures and incentives have been much debated.
          4. What do we mean by excellent science? 2 items
            Is 'excellence' self-evident? Peer review is the traditional mechanism for 'measuring' excellence, but how do we know different scientists understand and measure 'excellence' in the same way?
            1. Research excellence indicators: time to reimagine the ‘making of’? - Federico Ferretti, Ângela Guimarães Pereira, Dániel Vértesy, Sjoerd Hardeman 14/02/2018

              Article Further

        3. Emergence and growth of 'big science' 9 items
          We don't separately cover the concept of 'big science' in this course because it is covered in the first semester 'Major Themes' unit. But the emergence and growth of 'big science' is a key theme in the post-WWII development of taxpayer-funded science and we will touch on it at various points. Here are some classic key readings (Weinberg, de Solla Price), a very helpful overview (Capshew & Rader), a hypercritical account (Fuller) plus some coverage of historic (e.g. Hughes on the Manhattan Project) and recent examples such as the Human Genome Project and the controversial EU brain project.
          1. Big Science: Price to the Present - Capshew, James H. ; Rader, Karen A. 1992

            Article Recommended Great overview of the discussions in the literature on 'big science'.

          2. Little science, big science - Derek J. de Solla Price 1963

            Book Further

          3. Reflections on big science - Alvin M. Weinberg 1967

            Book Further

          4. The politics of European scientific collaboration - John Krige

            Chapter Further

          5. The Code of codes: scientific and social issues in the human genome project - Daniel Jo Kevles, Leroy E. Hood 1992

            Book Further

          6. The Manhattan Project: big science and the atom bomb - Jeff Hughes 2002

            Book Further

          7. The governance of science: ideology and the future of the open society - Steve Fuller c2000

            Book Further Fuller argues that 'big science' is not an inevitable end point in the evolution of a field or discipline but rather something constructed so as to appear inevitable by various social and political dynamics.

          8. Trouble in Mind - Stefan Theil 2015-9-15

            Article  News feature on the troubles befalling the controversial EU mega-project to model the workings of the human brain.

        4. Internationalisation of science 10 items
          (see also the section on 'Science Diplomacy' below)
          1. Lost Science in the Third World - WW Gibbs 17/07/1995

            Document Essential

          2. The new invisible college: science for development - Caroline S. Wagner c2008

            Book Recommended

          3. Scientific Diasporas - B. Seguin 16/06/2006

            Article Recommended

          4. Why English as the Universal Language of Science Is a Problem for Research - The Atlantic - Adam Huttner-Koros 21/08/2015

            Webpage Further A shorter and more up-to-date essay covering some of the ground covered by the Gibbs article above, but not as comprehensive.

          5. Global mobility: Science on the move - Richard Van Noorden 17/10/2012


          6. International mobility of scientists - Kieron Flanagan 2015

            Chapter Further This link is to Blackboard - only available to registered students and auditors on HSTM60592.

          7. China's Publication Bazaar - M. Hvistendahl 29/11/2013

            Article Further

        5. Commercialisation of science 6 items
          1. Science for Sale: The Perils, Rewards, and Delusions of Campus Capitalism - Daniel S. Greenberg 2008 (electronic resource)

            Book Essential Greenberg's account of the commercialisation of American science, and its negative impacts. Especially useful is Chapter 3. Due to a glitch in the system when you click this link it will tell you there is no copy of this in the library, but if you click to view it in the catalogue it will take you to the ebook. Apologies for this.

          2. The myth of the science park economy - Demos Quarterly - Paul Nightingale, Alex Coad 2014

            Article Recommended Innovation experts Nightingale and Coad demolish the notion that universities and science parks are hotbeds of transformative science-based entrepreneurial innovation.

          3. Reclaiming academia from post-academia - Philip Moriarty 2008-2

            Article Recommended An impassioned critique of the trends of commercialisation, evaluation and impact inherent in what Ziman called 'post-academic' science by the physicist Philip Moriarty. To be read in conjunction with 'Embracing impact' by the same author, below.

          4. Embracing impact (seduced by the Dark Side?) | Times Higher Education (THE) - Philip Moriarty 09/01/2016

            Article Recommended Philip Moriarty's recent partial recantation of his earlier attacks on 'the impact agenda'. To be read in conjunction with 'Reclaiming academia from post-academia', above.

          5. Science-mart: privatizing American science - Philip Mirowski 2011

            Book Further Mirowski's long and densely-written polemic argues that there IS something new, different and worrying about modern science's relationship with commercial actors and interests that has no historical parallel in earlier close relationships between science and commerce/industry. Unfortunately the book made more confusing by the central conceit of basing the book around an invented figure of 'Viridiana Jones', an academic encountering the realities of modern, commercialised/privatised science. This narrative conceit really doesn't work! However the underlying critique is very much worth dipping into.

          6. High-tech fantasies: science parks in society, science and space - Doreen Massey, Paul Quintas, David Wield 1992

            Book Further The classic empirical study of what roles science and technology parks do - and don't - play. Further reading for those interested in the arguments made by Nightingale and Coad (above).

    4. Science for (and in) Policy 37 items
      1. Risk and risk perception 6 items
        Issues of risk perception and communication have been considered elsewhere in the Sci Comm programme but these frameworks are important intellectual tools to put the uses of science in policy into context, so we will recap them.
        1. Risk society: towards a new modernity - Ulrich Beck, Mark Ritter 1992

          Book Recommended

        2. Risk and culture: an essay on the selection of technical and environmental dangers - Mary Douglas, Aaron B. Wildavsky 1982

          Book Recommended

        3. Perceived Risk, Trust, and Democracy - Paul Slovic 12/1993

          Article Recommended

        4. Perception of risk. - P Slovic

          Journal Further

        5. The Social Amplification of Risk: A Conceptual Framework - Roger E. Kasperson, Ortwin Renn, Paul Slovic, Halina S. Brown 06/1988

          Article Further

        6. The social amplification of risk - Nick F. Pidgeon, Roger E. Kasperson, Paul Slovic 2003

          Book Further

      2. Policy-making, regulation and science 9 items
        1. Science and trans-science - Alvin M. Weinberg 1972-4

          Article Essential An early argument that some of the most pressing policy challenges with a science or technology component 'transcend' science and thus cannot be left for consideration by scientists alone.

        2. Citizen Science: A Study of People, Expertise and Sustainable Development - Alan Irwin, Irwin a Staff 2002 (electronic resource)

          Book Recommended Irwin discusses the challenges new scientific and technological developments pose to our democracies, how they are dealt with, and what we can do better. See especially Chapters 2 and 3.

        3. How science makes environmental controversies worse - Daniel Sarewitz 10/2004

          Article Recommended

        4. Some further background reading, including the classic but highly pessimistic assessments of David Collingridge.

        5. Why we disagree about climate change: understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity - M. Hulme c2009

          Book Further Thoughtful but accessible discussion of the ways in which the climate change controversy transcends questions of consensus in climate science.

        6. Normal accidents: living with high-risk technologies - Charles Perrow 1984

          Book Further

        7. Technology in the policy process: controlling nuclear power - David Collingridge 1983

          Book Further

        8. The social control of technology - David Collingridge 1980

          Book Further

      3. Advisors and expertise 22 items
        1. The UK model - CSAs and advisory committees 5 items
          1. These links and resources relate directly to the material, videos and handouts discussed in the class.

          2. Future directions for scientific advice in Whitehall - Robert Doubleday, James Wilsdon 2013

            Document Further

        2. The BSE case 5 items
          1. Politics of expert advice: Lessons from the early history of the BSE saga - Millstone, Erik ; Van Zwanenberg, Patrick

            Journal Essential

          2. BSE: risk, science and governance - Patrick Van Zwanenberg, Erik Millstone

            Book Recommended

          3. Civilization and madness: The great BSE scare of 1996 - Sheila Jasanoff 1997-7

            Article Recommended

        3. The honest broker: making sense of science in policy and politics - Roger A. Pielke 2007

          Book Recommended An important delineation of the different roles scientific experts play in public policy.

        4. Misunderstood misunderstanding: social identities and public uptake of science - B Wynne 1992-7

          Article Recommended An alternative version of the same paper is available as Chapter One of Irwin A and Wynne B (eds), 1996, Misunderstanding Science? The public reconstruction of science and technology (Cambridge University Press).

        5. Typifying Scientific Advisory Structures and Scientific Advice Production Methodologies (TSAS) - Steven Glynn, Paul Cunningham, Kieron Flanagan 2003

          Document Further Quite an old study that compared arrangements - 'systems' for scientific advice in a number of different countries. Can be read in conjunction with the Ortwin Renn paper above.

        6. A Comparison of Tobacco Policy in the UK and Japan: If the Scientific Evidence is Identical, Why is There a Major Difference in Policy? - Paul Cairney, Mikine Yamazaki 16/05/2017

          Article Further Intriguing recent paper from political scientists that asks a really obvious question about scientific advice that surprisingly is rarely asked.

        7. Below some further reading on the nature of expertise and the credibility of advisors, including the new book by Colins and Evans, Why democracies need science, which argues that STS critiques of scientific expertise should not be taken to mean that such expertise doesn't have a special role to play in policy and regulation, and that we need a new approach to integrating scientific advice with other considerations based on the logic of their 'periodic table' of expertises (first introduced in the earlier book Rethinking Expertise). 

        8. The fifth risk: undoing democracy - Michael Lewis 2018

          Book Further A recent journalistic investigation into the (lack of) preparation by the incoming Trump administration for 'transition' in the leadership of various departments and agencies of the federal government. Gives a great account of the importance of often unglamorous expertise in government.

        9. Why democracies need science - H. M. Collins, Robert Evans 2017

          Book Further This book is in the library but also available in the library catalogue as an e-book. It's something of a polemic but short and punchy. Relevant also for broader debates about science and democracy.

        10. Rethinking Expertise - Harry Collins, Robert Evans 2007 (electronic resource)

          Book Further

        11. Citizens, experts, and the environment: the politics of local knowledge - Frank Fischer 2000

          Book Further

    5. Science and Democracy 24 items
      1. Introduction - Chapter of The science of liberty: democracy, reason, and the laws of nature

        Chapter Recommended Ferris, a US science journalist, argues that science and western-style liberal democracy go hand in hand and that one can not last long without the other.

      2. The geek manifesto: why science matters - Mark Henderson 2012

        Book Recommended A more measured UK version of Ferris's polemic, by Mark Henderson, former science editor of The Times and now Head of Communication for the Wellcome Trust.

      3. The Essential Parallel Between Science and Democracy - Sheila Jassanoff 2009

        Article Recommended Unlike Ferris and Henderson, Jassanoff approaches the science/democracy comparison in a more symmetrical way, thinking about the ways science needs to become more like democracy as well as vice-versa.

      4. Freedom's laboratory: the Cold War struggle for the soul of science - Audra J. Wolfe 2018

        Book Recommended Chapter One, "Western Science versus Marxist Science". This chapter discusses the response from US scientists and from the US state to the rise of Lysenko in the Soviet Union, and how those responses were entangled. It also puts this in the wider context of pre- and post-Second World War debates about science, democracy, the State which provides some useful context for our earlier discussion of V Bush's 1945 report 'Science: the Endless Frontier'.

      5. Why democracies need science - H. M. Collins, Robert Evans 2017

        Book Recommended This book is in the library but also available in the library catalogue as an e-book.

      6. Marching for the Right to Be Wrong: what it means to protest in the name of science - Sean Carroll 21/04/2017

        Article Further Short opinion piece from a US physicist using the 2017 "March for Science" as a springboard to discuss what he sees as the essential similarities between science and democracy.

      7. Do we need more scientists in politics? 6 items
        1. Turning Scientists Into Politicians | UnDark - Michael Schulson 26/03/2018

          Website Recommended An interesting discussion of the issues raised by the '314 Action' group which is backing 'scientist' candidates in US elections that goes beyond the simplistic argument over the benefits to democracy - and the risks to science. I've also linked a series of news features about the drive to involve scientists in US politics below.

        2. Professor Smith Goes to Washington: In response to the new president’s stances on a range of issues, more scientists are preparing to run for political office - Ed Yong

          Article Further Report on a new campaign to encourage scientists to stand for public office in the US, modelled on the Emily's List campaign.

      8. The threat to reason: how the Enlightenment was hijacked and how we can reclaim it - Dan Hind 2008

        Book Further Dan Hind's book argues that ultra-rationalists (including those who have post-structuralism and science studies as 'anti-Enlightenment') are in fact engaging in an anti-intellectualism which is profoundly contary to Enlightenment values. The 'Threat to Reason' may come from these figures, and not from those they attack.

      9. (Blogpost) An embarrassing moment for the skeptical movement – Footnotes to Plato - Massimo Pigliucci 24/05/2017

        Webpage  Commentary on the latest 'hoax' paper (2017) claimed to conclusively prove the bankruptcy of post-modernism/social constructionism in social science/humanities fields, and what it says about the lack of critical faculties of the 'skeptics' themselves.

      10. Bruno Latour, the Post-Truth Philosopher, Mounts a Defense of Science | The New York Times - Ava Kofman 2018

        Article  Recent interview with Bruno Latour, one of the targets of the science warriors' crusade against relativism and post-modernism, where he discusses the notion that the sociology of science of the past forty years might somehow be responsible for 'post-truth'.

      11. Below some further more background reading - on Merton's norms and what the history might tell us about the extent to which such shared values really figure in the practice and self-presentation of scientists. 

      12. How to be anti-scientific - Steven Shapin

        Chapter Recommended Link to author's own website (PDF version of chapter)

      13. Science and prejudice in historical perspective

        Chapter Recommended

      14. The normative structure of science - Robert K Merton 1973 (1942)

        Chapter Further

      15. Technological fixes 2 items
        1. Can Technology Replace Social Engineering? - Weinberg, Alvin

          Journal Recommended

        2. Three rules for technological fixes - Daniel Sarewitz, Richard Nelson 18/12/2008

          Article Recommended

    6. Public participation and a new social contract for science 14 items
      1. See-through Science: why public engagement needs to move upstream - James Wilsdon, Willis Rebecca

        Document Essential A recent call for greater public participation in 'upstream' debates about the direction of science and technology.

      2. Science for the post-normal age - Silvio O. Funtowicz, Jerome R. Ravetz 1993-9

        Article Recommended

      3. Re-thinking science: knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty - Helga Nowotny, Peter Scott, Michael Gibbons 2001

        Book Recommended An argument for new ways of doing science that bring scientists, other stakeholders and the public closer together. Also available in the library catalogue as an e-book.

      4. The new production of knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies - Michael Gibbons 1994

        Book Further

      5. 'Refrain from using the alphabet: how community outreach catalysed the life sciences at MIT' Chapter of Becoming MIT: moments of decision - John Durant

        Chapter Further John Durant explores the case of how local concerns about recombinant DNA technology in Cambridge MA (home to MIT and Harvard) in the 1970s led to an early "citizens' jury' process with novel forms of engagement between scientists, the public and local politicians. He argues that the local regulatory arrangements that emerged from this process were a large part of what subsequently made Cambridge such an attractive location for biomedical research (the so-called 'Kendall Square' cluster). DESPITE WHAT THIS PAGE MIGHT SAY THIS IS AVAILABLE IN THE LIBRARY CATALOGUE AS AN E-BOOK.

    7. Science Diplomacy 34 items
      1. Science Diplomacy: Introduction to a Boundary Problem - Carolin Kaltofen, Michele Acuto 11/2018

        Article Recommended Recent introduction to a special issue on 'science diplomacy' that gives a good critical overview from international relations, political science and science policy perspectives.

      2. Science and diplomacy: A conceptual framework (PDF) - AAAS Center for Science Diplomacy 2009

        Document Recommended

      3. New Frontiers in Science Diplomacy. Navigating the Changing Balance of Power - The Royal Society, AAAS

        Document Recommended A good overview laying out the main themes

      4. Science and Diplomacy: The Past as Prologue | Science & Diplomacy - Vaughan C. Turekian, Norman P. Neureiter 2012

        Article Recommended Editorial in the first issue of the AAAS Quarterly publication 'Science and Diplomacy'. Turekian was the one who recently launched (or re-launched ) science diplomacy in the international arena as joint effort between the US State Department and the AAAS as a non-governmental body.

      5. The Evolution of Science Diplomacy - Vaughan Turekian 11/2018

        Article  Another more recent account of the growth in interest of science diplomacy from Turekian.

      6. Literature review ("State of the Art") on Science Diplomacy | S4D4C Project, 2018 - Charlotte Rungius 2018

        Document  A useful recent literature review/synthesis from a major EU research project looking at Science Diplomacy.

      7. Science and diplomacy: a new dimension of international relations - Pierre-Bruno Ruffini 2017

        Book Further Fairly descriptive (rather than analytical or critical) recent account of modern science diplomacy with some chapters on different countries. This is an e-book available through the University Library. You will need to be logged into the University system in order to access it. Chapters or the book can be read online, downloaded as an ePub or as a PDF file.

      8. Stop Inventing "New Diplomacies" | USC Center on Public Diplomacy - Shaun Riordan June 2017

        Webpage Further Short critical blogpost arguing that the recent trend towards inventing new 'diplomacies' such as science diplomacy, digital diplomacy, public diplomacy, is dangerous (because the new diplomacies are so conceptually confused) and risks rendering actual diplomacy meaningless.

      9. Science and 'soft power' 7 items
        1. Soft power: the means to success in world politics - Joseph S. Nye 2004

          Book Further Archetypal exposition of the political science concept of soft power in international relations, and why science is part of that.

        2. Freedom's laboratory: the Cold War struggle for the soul of science - Audra J. Wolfe 2018

          Book  Chapter Seven "Developing scientific minds" tells the fascinating story of how translated editions of high school biology textbooks were used by a CIA front organisation as a tool to project particular conceptions of freedom and democracy in South East Asia during the Cold War.

      10. Below a range of further reading on science and international relations.

      11. Science Diplomacy in the European Union | Science & Diplomacy - Carlos Moedas 2016

        Webpage  Piece from the current European Commissioner for Research on why the EU needs more science diplomacy.

      12. Science, geopolitics and the governance of Antarctica - Simon Naylor, Martin Siegert, Katrina Dean, Simone Turchetti 2008-3

        Article  Historical reconstruction of the implications of using science in the governance of Antarctica.

      13. Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics–science collaboration in international affairs - Birte Fähnrich 21/11/2016

        Article  An interesting case study of what works and what doesn’t in science/diplomacy collaborations

      14. After the “Two Cultures”: Toward a “(Multi)cultural” Practice of Science Communication - JosÉ van Dijck 01/12/2003

        Article  How might we introduce new models of science communication into diplomacy?

      15. Denationalizing science: the contexts of international scientific practice - Elisabeth T. Crawford, Terry Shinn, Sverker Sörlin c1993


      16. And below some shorter pieces - news items and commentaries - that deal with issues of science diplomacy.

      17. How dare you call us diplomats - Amaya Moro-Martín 2017-3-14

        Article  Strong criticism of the Spanish government's labelling of its expatriate scientists as 'science diplomats' by an emigrant scientist who has campaigned against the science cuts that caused her and many like her to leave the country.

      18. How a handful of South American protestors in French Guiana took Arianespace and Europe's space program hostage — Quartz - Peter D'Auria 17/04/2017

        Article  Short article about how Europe's spaceport in French Guiana, a major emblem of European scientific and technological co-operation, has become the focus of resentments over poverty and underdevelopment in that French overseas territory.

      19. Border water is the biggest climate change issue no one's talking about — Quartz - Zoë Schlanger 2018

        Article  Nice recent piece looking at how collaborating on a shared scientific understanding of the problem, and other aspects of what might be called 'science diplomacy' could help resolve cross-border tensions and disputes over water resources.

    8. Issues in contemporary science policy 41 items
      1. Overviews - is science broken? 6 items
        1. Ten Simple Rules for Scientific Fraud & Misconduct - Nicolas Rougier, John Timmer 29/11/2018

          Article Further

        2. Trouble in Mind - Stefan Theil 2015-9-15

          Article Further

      2. Do we really need more scientists? 3 items
        1. Chapters 8 and 9 - Science, money, and politics: political triumph and ethical erosion (Greenberg)

          Chapter Recommended These chapters of Greenberg's 2001 book illustrate the political dynamics of debates about STEM supply. They tell the story of the late 1980s projection by the NSF of a future 'shortfall' in PhD scientists in the US and the subsequent criticisms (including from Congress) of this as baseless scaremongering.

        2. Conclusion (Chapter 9) of Is American science in decline?

          Chapter Further A recent review of the evidence about the under or over supply of advanced STEM skills in the US, along with other supposed measures of the 'decline' of US science. Available in the library catalogue as an e-book.

      3. Racial/gender inequality and harassment in science 6 items
        1. Inequality quantified: Mind the gender gap - Helen Shen 2013-3-6

          Article Further

        2. Harassment in science is real - Robin E. Bell, Lora S. Koenig 08/12/2017

          Article Further

      4. Reproducibility and statistics in science 6 items
        1. P-hack your way to scientific glory (interactive demonstration of p-hacking) | FiveThirtyEight

          Website Essential I strongly recommend playing with this simulation from FiveThirtyEight which illustrates how you can fiddle with the parameters of your research and/or with your data points until you achieve a robust-looking finding - the phenomenon known as 'p-hacking'.

        2. The ASA's statement on p-values: context, process, and purpose - Ronald L. Wasserstein, Nicole A. Lazar 07/03/2016

          Article Essential

        3. The Baby Factory: Difficult Research Objects, Disciplinary Standards, and the Production of Statistical Significance - D. Peterson 22/01/2016

          Article Further Interesting STS study of psychology research which sheds light on some of the practical issues of doing research which make replication difficult - suggesting the problem may be baked into experimental science.

        4. Modelling science trustworthiness under publish or perish pressure (PDF) | Royal Society Open Science - David Grimes, Chris Bauch, John Ioannidis 10/1/2018

          Article Further Attempt to explore what the pressures of publishing might do to create problems such as fraud or poor practices in science through simulation.

      5. Scientific publishing and 'open science' 14 items
        1. Reinventing discovery: the new era of networked science - Michael A. Nielsen ©2012

          Book Recommended Michael Nielsen's influential call for a more 'open' science based on open access publishing, data sharing and 'citizen science'. Available in the catalogue as an e-book as well as a physical copy.

        2. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review - Jonathan P. Tennant, François Waldner, Damien C. Jacques, Paola Masuzzo 2016-9-21

          Article Recommended

        3. The case of #arseniclife: Blogs and Twitter in informal peer review - S. K. Yeo, X. Liang, D. Brossard, K. M. Rose 26/05/2016

          Article Recommended

        4. The nonsense math effect | Judgment and Decision-Making - K Eriksson 2012

          Article Further Study suggesting (at least some) reviewers (from some disciplinary backgrounds) may be more likely to highly rate journal papers with abstracts that include a (nonsensical) mathematical formula

        5. Research integrity: Don't let transparency damage science - Stephan Lewandowsky, Dorothy Bishop 2016-1-25

          Article Further

        6. Modelling science trustworthiness under publish or perish pressure (PDF) | Royal Society Open Science - David Grimes, Chris Bauch, John Ioannidis 10/1/2018

          Article Further Attempt to explore what the pressures of publishing might do to create problems such as fraud or poor practices in science through simulation.

      6. Is there too much science being done? 2 items
      7. The human dimension 4 items
        1. Poisonous science: the dark side of the lab

          Webpage Further Shocking anonymous account of the potential human cost to the individual scientist of exposing scientific misconduct

        2. When the Revolution Came for Amy Cuddy | New York Times Magazine - Susan Dominus 18/10/2017

          Article Further Interesting NYT interview with a former Harvard political scientist/psychologist giving an insight into what it might do to a scientist's career and personal life to be found to have published 'unreplicable' research.

  3. Further background reading on some of the people behind classic science policy ideas 3 items
    1. 13: Moonlight Philosophy of Science Administration

      Chapter Further Chapter 13: fascinating chapter of Alvin Weinberg's memoir dealing with his forays into science policy thinking.

    2. Michael Polanyi and his generation: origins of the social construction of science - Mary Jo Nye 2011

      Book Further The first half of the book deals with Polanyi's life and career, and along the way provides interesting insights into the emergence of large public research institutes, industry-academic links, scientific migration, the impact of the rise of the Nazis on German science, and more besides. The second half looks at the shaping of Polanyi's ideas in economics, science policy and on the nature of knowledge and on the impacts those ideas have subsequently had.

    3. Freedom's laboratory: the Cold War struggle for the soul of science - Audra J. Wolfe 2018

      Book Further Chapter Four "Science and Freedom" details Michael Polanyi's involvement with the CIA-backed Congress for Cultural Freedom. The story is picked up again in Chapter Eight "An Unscientific Reckoning". The story is funnier than it sounds.